Thursday, 31 December 2015 00:00

Trust, Strength in Fragility

MANILA, Philippines.
Trust, Strength in Weakness.  This is the title of the letter for the Year 2016 written in Manila, Philippines, by the President of the Teresian Association.  It is addressed to those who participate in the spirituality and mission of St. Pedro Poveda.

We offer some excerpts of of the Letter for those who may wish to deepen into te virtue of trust as a vital experience in the life of each person and each group.


“We cannot live without putting our trust in someone and without feeling the trust of others.

We were born and we continue to be born every day in response to a clear expression of trust, first by our parents, and then and throughout our lives by people with whom we weave relationships and who invite us to grow as individuals, to excel, to develop new skills and to recognise in daily life our identity, our vocation and our mission.

Trust enables us to face challenges, to take new paths and to open doors.

This year that we wish to dedicate to emphasising trust is one that Pope Francis has providentially called the world and the Church to devote to mercy. He says,

“We need constantly to contemplate the mystery of mercy. It is a wellspring of joy, serenity, and peace”. He goes on to say, “Mercy: the ultimate and supreme act by which God comes to meet us [...] opening our hearts to the hope of being loved”.[1]

There are so many people searching for a place where they are accepted and where they are really listened to. They long to hear a liberating word. We know that deep in the heart of every man, woman and young person there is an inner space that is hidden and where God resides. It is here that the Spirit dwells in us, and where God is listening, speaking, healing, forgiving and liberating. This is the tenderness for which many people are searching, sometimes without realising, and we know from experience that it is essential in order to be really happy.[2]

A year lived with trust, tenderness and mercy is a new opportunity for the mission. It is an impetus to continue breaking new ground at "a critical time", an expression used by Josefa Segovia. It is a time to be salt wherever we are present, but not only. We must also be “light on a lamp-stand and a lighthouse standing at the sea cliffs”.[3]

1. Trust as a spiritual adventure

“Blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord” (Jr 17:7)

As we journey with the men and women of our times, we can hear their questions and queries: Does life have any meaning? How can we deal with pain, suffering and death? Where can we find the joy of living? Will there be a tomorrow? For what purpose? For whom?  Where? How?

The answers cannot come from easily repeated formulas. The first thing we are asked to do is to accept their questions. In a way, they are ours too. Then we must rely on the experience of trust of those people who have perceived a path, a direction, a horizon that has given meaning to their lives.

When the prophet Isaiah announces that “every valley shall be raised up, every mountain and hill made low; the rough ground shall become level, the rugged places a plain”, (Isaiah 40: 4-5) he is anticipating what is to come because he believes in God’s promise and sees the present in the light of a future in which he puts his trust.

The prophet invites us to turn the future into a project that will mobilise our present.

When Mary hears Gabriel’s words, “He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever; his kingdom will never end”, she accepts the future and does not close the door. She only asks, “How will this be since I am a virgin?”(Lk 1, 32-34)

There are so many times when we wonder about similar questions: How can this be? How can a virgin give birth to a child? How can a woman from an insignificant place in the Roman Empire give birth to the Saviour? How could she have guessed that the history of that town contained a seed of such a great future?

Trust as a human act, the ability to trust in something and especially in someone, the possibility of abandoning ourselves - all of this helps us to look ahead and to open up new horizons.

Trust is not an escape from reality. On the contrary, it is an invitation to look at today with vision for the future. Trust is not static but is dynamic. It moves, tries new ways and does not conform to this world as it is. Trust senses a new world that we as believers know is rooted in the promise of the Resurrection.

In every human being there is an inner life. Here light and darkness are mixed, joy and sorrow, trust and doubt. This inner life does not come from us, but is the expression of the loving attention of God, the living God who dwells in us and through whom there is always potential to move towards light, love, and hope.[4]

When we experience the power of love and friendship, the beauty of creation and of human creativity, trust takes root and comes alive. It grows, develops and shows itself, and therefore it becomes credible. Genuine trust cannot be abstracted from reality. It needs it, depends on it, and at the same time, transcends it.

In these times when we feel weakened by the breaks, separations, grief and the unexpected and rapid changes in family, professional, relational and social life, we have more need than ever to see that there are real people whose presence, words or gestures say that it is possible to look forward. They tell us that life is stronger than our experiences, and that we can move forward with the certainty that someone is reaching out a hand to us. Josefa Segovia used to say:

The virtue of a person full of hope who can do anything in the one who comforts, must necessarily be like the leaves of trees growing beside a stream that are gentle, smooth and abundant and defend with their shade from the scorching sun all who pass by tired and perspiring”,[5].

For us as believers, faith in the Risen Lord does not erase contradictions or doubts or questions without meaning. It disposes us to look at life differently, through the eyes of the One who is the source and horizon of meaning and hope. “I know”, Paul tells Timothy, “in whom I have put my trust”.(2 Tim 1, 12)

Doubt and the temptation to see no meaning or prospects, are part of the experience of faith. At the same time, without them, faith would become knowledge, something rational that we could somehow dominate. It is because of experiences of doubt, of the “dark night” and of searching that faith becomes humble and trusting and there is supplication and prayer. [6]

The most radical experience of trust on the part of Christians is to recognise that the face of God, manifested in Jesus, is the face of someone in whom we can put our trust, because his life, work and actions are as credible today as they were in his time. Those who were with him saw how he loved to the end. It was love that nothing and nobody could cause to waver. He loved friends and enemies too, and so his way of love makes us glimpse something of eternity, of forever, of everlasting love, the love of God whom Jesus did not hesitate to call Father.

We too find that our encounter with the Jesus of the Gospels calls us out of ourselves to open up spaces of trust and freedom, spaces in which anyone, men and women, young and old, can feel welcomed and be sure of love and understanding. They are welcome spaces where, like Jesus, nobody feels trapped in their past. On the contrary, they are open to a future that will come in which compassion and mercy, tenderness and trust, manifest the power of the dignity of every person, every culture and every human experience.

For Jesus, nothing is lost forever and nobody is locked into failure or meaninglessness. He is always ready to encourage and create spaces of life and forgiveness. “’Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?’ ‘No one, sir,’ she said. ‘Then neither do I condemn you’, Jesus declared. ‘Go now and leave your life of sin’”. (John 8, 10-11)

In speaking of the Jubilee of Mercy, Pope Francis invited us to go forth and cross the barriers of fear that can paralyse us individually and as family, associatively and institutionally. He said:

“... we look forward to the experience of opening our hearts to those living on the outermost fringes of society: fringes which modern society itself creates. How many uncertain and painful situations there are in the world today! [...] Let us not fall into humiliating indifference or a monotonous routine that prevents us from discovering what is new! Let us ward off destructive cynicism! [...] May their cry become our own, and together may we break down the barriers of indifference[7]

The great Russian poet Anna Akhmatova also challenges us to be there where so many people are expecting us,

“not under the vault of alien skies,
and not under the shelter of alien wings.
I was with my people then,
there, where my people, unfortunately, were”.[8]

Archbishop Romero would say in his diary, “there are calls of love that I have not yet internalised”.

On the cross Jesus reveals the face of God - a God who has been abandoned, tried and convicted, but who does not abandon, judge or condemn. He continues to love right to the end, loving even those who crucified him.[9].

These are testimonies and invitations that tell us how to enter into God’s desire for us. They show us how to listen to God who is patient and merciful and who continually calls and waits, encourages and sends forth, and who puts new desires into our hearts with the certainty that we can accomplish them from Him and with Him.

In these times when we daily meet men and women who find meaning in their lives through different religious convictions, Pope Francis also invites us to go forth to meet them with trust and openness of heart:

“I trust that this Jubilee year celebrating the mercy of God will foster an encounter with these religions and with other noble religious traditions; may it open us to even more fervent dialogue so that we might know and understand one another better; may it eliminate every form of closed-mindedness and disrespect, and drive out every form of violence and discrimination”.[10]

Saint Teresa, to whom we have been especially close this year, in her “Book of Life” tells us that:

“We must have great confidence, for it is most important that we should not cramp our good desires, but should believe that, with God's help, if we make continual efforts to do so, we shall attain, though perhaps not at once, to that which many saints have reached through His favour. [...] His Majesty desires and loves courageous souls if they have no confidence in themselves but walk in humility; [...] I am astounded at how much can be done on this road if one has the courage to attempt great things”.[11]

The face of God that Teresa had discovered and wanted to show to others is that of a God who looked on her with love, friendship, mercy and trust. “There is no place here for fear, but only desire”,[12] she would write in the Book of Life. 

2. Tenderness of the different faces of trust

This is the one to whom I will look (Is. 66, 2)

(…) During this year of trust, let us meet the women and men whose lives have been  deeply marked by their encounter with Jesus, by other spiritual experiences  and who show us that from there, trust can grow. Let us widen our gaze and welcoming the invitation of Pope Francis, let us recognise the different faces of trust in the people who, coming from whatever religious conviction, can be for us today, an invitation to believe, trust and love.

Let us think of ;Francis of Assisi, Teresa of Jesus, Pedro Poveda, Victoria Diez, Etty Hillesum, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Josephine Bakhita, Pedro To Rot, Gandhi, Madeleine Delbrêl, Oscar Romero, Elisa Giambelluca, Mother Teresa, the monks of Thibirine, Brother Roger,…

Different faces, an unfinished list which each one and each local context can and should complete because it is a question of recognising faces embodied in very different cultures, witnesses of the Resurrection, companions in the journey who show us, with their lives, the power of an ideal  and through it we can grow in trust. Men and women who tells us where to look, not what we have to see.

Their being human and in many cases their faith has made them great, each person with their gifts, with their passionate and challenging life, with their capacity to be fully human and totally filled with God. It is not about wanting to copy them, but yes, about seeing how their trust in the God of Jesus has transformed their lives.

Like us, they have had defects, limitations, but they all have found the source of confidence in prayer, and very especially those who have known doubt, confusion, uncertainty and even the” dark night”. Friendship with Jesus has been their strength, and it has made them free and has taken them where humanly speaking they could not have ever imagined.

They have experienced that trust in the God of Jesus gives us a new way of looking at reality, of looking at other people, towards the future, towards our own selves. Trust gives us that look of gratitude, of hope, of recognising in the discrete but active presence of the Risen Lord who says to us once again: “Do not be afraid”. (Mt. 8, 26).

We all know the deserts of fear, but wherever we are, our trust in the God of Jesus can free us from fear and death and make us grow in humility and humanity.

In our families and work places, in our day to day living, a new and profound look of tenderness and mercy for each person can also be very healing. Knowing how to recognise the good that each person can do, how to praise, to value, can move one to act, create fidelity and positively stimulate us to action.

To look at people in the light of God’s gaze, allows us to expand with gratitude and deep admiration the unfinished list of faces of trust which I invited you to complete.

The day to day reality sometimes asks us to take the first step to create trust between people and nations through signs of mutual welcome among races and cultures. In this epoch, when so many doors are closed, and numerous initiatives have failed, let us dare to take steps to welcome those that belong to another origin, another conviction, another way of thinking, another way of life, of belief and simply another way of being.

We are ending a very intense year, especially a difficult one as regards the real situation of men and women, children and adolescents who have left their countries in unimaginable conditions in order to find places where they can live a dignified life, spaces where they can educate and train their younger generations. They too are faces of trust in a world that is different from the land they have left behind and I am inviting you to look at them with tenderness. Let us look at them as persons, such as they are, let us look at their faces and listen to their stories, trying to respond to their situation as best as we could, Pope Francis said in the Capitol. [13]

We cannot be insensitive as God himself was not insensitive when he saw the oppression of his people. Let us join forces creatively, together with groups and associations that look for right responses and appropriate actions because indifference is a denial of love. Let us open spaces for discernment in our communities and groups in order to make progress in prophetic and possible decisions, as an expression of communion and of our human and Christian commitment.

Our globalised world needs witnesses to a new understanding of God where the dominant features would be tenderness and mercy. “I want to be among you as a missionary of mercy, of the tenderness of God” Pope Francis said during his visit to Cuba.

Being different from each other, we ought to learn how to live together. If we do not do it now when are we going to do it? We will do it without creating ghettos,not just tolerating, but taking time to stop, to listen and offer the best of what we know and what we can give and also what we can receive and exchange, since each of us can enrich one another.

(…) Many of us think that we cannot be of influence, cannot do anything because the temptation of feeling powerless is strong, but an interior life sustained by contemplation, reconciliation, simplicity, forgiveness and solidarity can open creative paths and find new expressions of justice and peace.

During the complicated and chaotic years in Spain around 1929, audacity according to the style of St Teresa is, for Pedro Poveda a sign of trust that he wanted and proposed to his collaborators.

“We must be determined to accomplish anything that we understand to be of greater service to the Lord, relying on his help. This ought to be your plan, as demanded by the present time and by the needs of society nowadays.” [14]

3. Living with fragility

.…a tree by the waterside that thrusts its roots to the stream, when the heat comes it has nothing to fear, its foliage stays green”. (Jr. 17, 8)

The experience of fragility concerns us very directly from the first moment of our existence. We are vulnerable beings and perhaps throughout our lives we force ourselves to overcome our weakness because we believe that the ideal is to be strong, to delay death, to avoid illness, and in some way science and technology make us believe that everything can be repaired, postponed and changed.

However, fragility is naturalto our human condition and plays a very important role in our own human development. Not knowing everything, not able to control or dominate everything is good news because it impels us to create relationship, solidarity, complementarity and communion in diversity. From our weakness comes our capacity to enter into relationship with others. If we were not vulnerable, we would not be able to develop the capacity to do something together, to accept the fact that we need one another.

A difficult experience of fragility happens in the presence of a stranger, of someone different and radically ‘other’. This day to day reality is another aspect of weakness: the fear of not knowing how to face the ‘otherness’ of another person. We easily forget that we are recognised as subjects, as persons, when we risk to be involved in an encounter, relationship and friendship with someone who is different. The experience of trust makes us feel the strength in weakness.

If we read the Beatitudes attentively, we see that each weakness is in reality a strength. Each beatitude expresses the joy of discovering that by adopting certain attitudes, our human existence with all its weakness can be a work of art that finds its fulfilment in God. Poverty in spirit, gentleness, hunger and thirst for justice, mercy, peace, are concrete situations where we can discover the happiness of giving and serving others and of opening a hopeful future.

Living with fragility means recognising and accepting it. This brings our experience closer to that of the Risen Lord. When we look at Christ, the crucified Lord and learn from him the acceptance of reality and the gratuitousness of love, we can be a source of meaning for others because experience has transfigured us and made us more human.

Living with fragility brings us closer to the experience of the people of Israel when, in their long journey through the desert, they accepted the promise and received the covenant. Abraham’s experience of the promise became the invitation to set out on a journey and leave his homeland. Many times a promise often involves utopia. It invites us to dream and look towards the future, to go farther, cross boundaries, to go towards the unknown. Abraham dared to set out on a journey towards an unknown but fertile land, in order to find signs of life, life in abundance.

Living with fragility also involves covenant, like the covenant God made with Noah after the Flood. It is a covenant born out of a promise: God promises he will never again destroy the earth with a flood and in this way makes a human person responsible with him for creation. The promise and the covenant make us creators and co-creators of a future still to come, to be fulfilled, still to be built. The promise and the covenant express fragility that has been accepted, engaged with and recognised and that is why it generates trust as a spiritual attitude.

It is not a question of praising fragility for its own sake but valuing what it reveals as regards our human experience and the action of God in us, what it allows and what it creates. Weakness is not good in itself. It is a condition for creating something different, diverse, perhaps something radically new because it is given by God.

The blind beggar Bartimaeus (Mark 10, 46-52) was sitting at the side of the road. Life was full of excitement around him, but in his own life, nothing much was happening. He cannot see the light of day nor rejoice at his own existence. But they told him that Jesus is going to pass by and he does not want to miss this encounter. And a loud cry comes out from the depths of his being. “Have pity on me”. Jesus calls him and invites him to express his desire, his searching, to get out of sadness and of darkness.  “What do you want me to do for you? What do you desire?” The light that restored the sight of Bartimaeus is the same light that will rise from the tomb on Easter morning. That day Bartimaeus has found once more the path of trust.

Today, Jesus also meets us on the road, there wherever each one of us is. He challenges us, questions us about the meaning of our own lives and invites us to journey and search, with Christ and in Christ, for the fullness of our own human development, the fullness of life lived in trust.

4. Trust, creativity and hope, to cross boundaries and defy limits.

In the year of drought it is not anxious, and it does not cease to bear fruit. (Jr 17:8)

I find the biblical passage of the rich young man (Mt 19, 16-22) thought-provoking, inviting us to continue to progress and enter more deeply into that trust that we desire to receive. Once more we find Jesus in dialogue, conversation, in an attitude of a wayfarer. The young man’s question is direct, “what must I do?” Jesus replies, but leaves a window open, invites him to go further. Keeping the law, norms, is not the important thing, what is essential is the attitude with which we receive the word and put it into practice.

Jesus addresses loving words to the young man, specific and at a precise time in his life. The time of encounter with God is always in the present. To accept these words is to open oneself to trust. When the words overturn us and give us the strength of conversion, when they impel us to come out of ourselves to allow God to enter our lives, this is when the Spirit re-creates us, gives us rebirth  from on high. We may already be old like Nicodemus (John 3,4) but we know that there is no aging worse than the sins of pride and egoism.

What counts is the heart’s disposition, the intensity of desire, the depth of listening, the truth of life. Just one word is enough to reach the innermost part of our being, so that the Lord may renew us and change our hearts. The rich young man received a call to a second conversion, a qualitative leap, to leave fears, resistances, to let oneself be guided towards a new way of being and living. He became sad, because he had many possessions, (Mt 19, 22) the Gospel tells us.

We too are at that time, in this present time of an encounter with God who calls us to embark on pathways of trust to develop a new creativity. Like the rich young man we need to shed our egos, personal and institutional, to go further, into the unknown, the changing, leave the familiar safe paths and ask, Where do people need us now? Where is today’s world inviting us to give new responses, to take on novel and creative experiences, from the base of trust?

 In a way I feel that this time in the Association must be like what Josefa Segovia felt in the years when the Work was expanding. She took risks. She trusted people completely and sent them to break new ground. Her spirit and her desire to spread the Association to new places can help us to look at the present time of the Association and its future in a different way.

(…) In 1924, a time of growth in the Association, Pedro Poveda too lived with great trust and wrote, not without humour, to Josefa Segovia:

"The order of new foundations will be as God wishes. When I went to Jaen I had no Director for that residence and God gave me a first class one, do you know her? In one academic year two foundations are not bad, but this is not a rare thing, and now we must create more. "[15]

In those moments and all through his life Pedro Poveda forged new paths.  He pushed at seemingly closed doors, created new forms with and for lay people, gave priority to forming people who came to collaborate in the Teresian task.  He organized forces, that is, sought ways for the association’s evangelising to bear fruit, and fruit in abundance in response to the signs of its time.

This second centenary can be, as we said before, the opportunity for a Kairos, a paradigm shift, an experience of new wisdom and boundless trust. How many times we say among ourselves we have no resources, we feel our limits strongly. Feeling limited makes us feel poor, and opens us to trust, because it reminds us of the radical experience of faith. Wanting has no limits.

That was Josefa Segovia’s experience:

"As befits faith, I also find myself full of trust ... On the one hand the Lord has given me light to know the greatness of the Work, its possibilities ... On the other hand He makes me see and feel my weakness, my unworthiness and nothingness… As I am so sure and have also experienced that the Lord combines very well these two opposites –the greatness of the Work and the unworthiness of the one carrying it out-  it does not surprise me at all to see the Association growing, consolidating ... and doing much good ... Everything is being done the Lord’s way, without force or imposition."[16]

(…) There is an attitude that Pope Francis emphasises in his encyclical Laudato Si, that can accompany our desire to cross borders and defy boundaries as a spiritual experience.

"We are speaking of an attitude of the heart, one which approaches life with serene attentiveness, which is capable of being fully present to someone without thinking of what comes next, which accepts each moment as a gift from God to be lived to the full. Jesus taught us this attitude when He invited us to contemplate the lilies of the field and the birds of the air, or when seeing the rich young man and knowing his restlessness, “He looked at him with love” (Mk10:21). He was completely present to everyone and to everything, and in this way He showed us the way to overcome that unhealthy anxiety which makes us superficial.[17]

We need a fresh "starting from now" to see and experience that the Association can integrate generative, creative, innovative people. We have to express in deeds and words that we want not only the fruits produced by a history already lived, but that we want new trees, new life, new ways.

5. The prophecy of trust

See, I make all things new (Rv. 21, 5)

Each step, each moment of history, holds a collective call to be faithful and creative, and to each member of the Association falls a part in developing our charism, something which we cannot abandon, since each of us has also received it.

From the diversity of members which Pedro Poveda very soon intuited, we can and should see an evolutionary development of the Teresian Association, which along with the needs, challenges and opportunities of each moment in history, confirms for us that it is "a living organism enlivened by the spirit."[18]

We must venture into the seemingly uncertain but prophetic way of trust, always willing to give support to new ways of seeing, new viewpoints, suggestions and proposals for deep and brave changes. This requires us to be flexible in seeking responses so that the Association may be light, mobile, listening to the signs of the times, in the service of life.

It is to accept the richness of each person, each culture, each associated expression, every development of the charism, and to recognise it as a richness of one’s own, as the fruit of life, as something totally indispensable to build communion.  Let us not fear diversity.

"Both in menu and in table ritual, cultures are present without mixing. They do not fuse but feed each other: exchanging recipes, customs, ways of doing and being. One lets oneself be surprised by “the taste of the other”. Each flavour becomes an invitation to travel, an invitation to leave one’s own land with its produce and aromas to enter another land that opens our senses to unfamiliar smells, in this way bringing new salt and pepper to our lives. "[19]

Pope Francis at the close of the Synod on the Family said: Cultures are in fact quite diverse, and each general principle needs inculturation (....) Inculturation does not  weaken true values, but demonstrates their true strength and authenticity, since they adapt without changing, but rather, peacefully and gradually transform the various cultures.[20]

We want to look at and build the future of the Association starting from the local embodiments of its faith and charism.  The ways we seek to evolve vary, as answers should vary, and that diversity does not break unity, on the contrary, it enriches the whole and builds communion. Where we are trusting, optimistic, ambitious and demanding with ourselves we create motivating environments where it is pleasant to work, live, love, relate, and where together we can discern and look to the future with confidence. We want to learn everything from everyone, welcome new experiences to build a future that is on the way. It is the prophecy of trust.

"We stand in the presence of a Work of God. Everything points to it. We know how we started; we cannot say where we will end.  God has chosen us for His Work and it was not we who came but He who called us.  We contracted a responsibility when we came; we must all cooperate. Here it’s not up to one while others are superfluous, but everyone has their place, their duty, their responsibility."[21]

This is the way we want to go forward in this year 2016.

In communion with all people of goodwill, who in this Jubilee year will be pilgrims of mercy, we will unite in our daily work with a desire that becomes an appeal:

Lord, we place our trust in you so we may recognise the signs of the times.

Maite Uribe Bilbao


[1]Pope Francis, Misericordiae Vultus, no. 3
[2] Enzo Bianchi, Para mi vivir es Cristo, Paulinas, Madrid 2007
[3] Josefa Segovia, Llamamiento a la santidad, (25 marzo de 1954) en Cartas, Ed. Madrid, 1970, p. 565
[4]  Santiago Pérez Barral. Taizé, fuente de confianza. La confianza en el Hermano Roger, Barcelona 2006
[5] Josefa Segovia, Esperanza sin límites, (3 marzo de 1928) en Cartas, p. 310
[6] Enzo Bianchi, Fe y confianza, Einaudi 2013
[7] Pope Francis, Misericordiae Vultus, no. 15
[8] Quoted in Spanish in an article on the TA website Refugiados: Es el momento de dejar de conmoverse y empezar a moverse, 25.09.2015. English translation from The Complete Poems of Anna Akhmatova, translated by Judith Hemschemeyer, found on

[9] Brother Emmanuel of Taizé, Love, imperfectly known: beyond spontaneous representations of God, Continuum 2011
[10] Pope Francis, Misericordiae Vultus, no. 23.
Teresa of Avila, Autobiography, chapter 13, 2
[12] IBIB., chapter 8, 5.
[13] POPE FRANCIS. Speech atthe United States Congress. 24 setember 2015
[14] Pedro Poveda, Obras I, Creí por esto hablé, (Abril 1920), Narcea S.A. Madrid 2005 [298]
[15]  IBID. P. 332
[16] Josefa Segovia,  Lo que yo siento de la confianza (sin fecha) en Cartas, ITER ED. Madrid 1970, 1009-1011
[17] Pope Francis, Encyclical Letter Laudato Si, no.226
[18] Pedro Poveda, Obras I, Creí por esto hablé (1916). NARCEA S. A. madrid, 2005[78]
[19] Elena Lasida, El gusto del otro, Albin Michel, 2011
[20] Pope Francis, Closing speech at the Synod on the Family.24 october 2015
[21] Pedro Poveda, Obras I, Creí por esto hablé  (1920) NARCEA SA. Madrid, 2005[178]



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